In 1856, an obscure-ish writer, frustrated by the non-recognition of his newest self-published oeuvre, took matters into his own hands. He sent copies of his book of poems, unsolicited, to the literary luminaries of his day. One luminary, Ralph Waldo Emerson, replied with a polite thank-you note."'I greet you at the beginning of a great career.' —Ralph Waldo Emerson"
was quickly appended—in blingy gold letters—to the back of this book.
This is widely considered to be the first book blurb in the English language, as we've documented on the site before. Without it, perhaps Walt Whitman and his Leaves of Grass might have stayed obscure forever (Emerson, however, objected to this manipulation of his private correspondence). Besides poetic genius, Whitman had the marketing instinct of a P.T. Barnum; of course, today we think of him as an American bard, but at the time, he also penned his own blurbable reviews, anointing himself the "American bard at last!" pulling off what Jerome Loving, in his biography Emerson, Whitman, and the American Muse, viewed "as a slick promotion scheme, done by a man with little sense of propriety."
Blurbs, the quoted testimonials of a book's virtues by other authors, are now so ubiquitous, readers expect them, first-time authors stress about getting them, booksellers base orders on them. A blank back cover today would probably look like a production mistake. But while readers heft books in their hands and scrutinize the praise, it should be noted that blurbs are not ad copy written by some copywriter; they are ad copy written by a fellow author. "Ad copy" might be a bit harsh, but maybe not. The "flap copy," the wordage on the inside flap of the cover of a hard cover, is written by the publishers, to tell potential readers what the book is about but also, of course, to spur a purchase. Blurbs are also there for promotional purposes only, their bias similarly implicit. "Why is this even a book?" I saw in a book review for a tepid memoir that I read in galleys and enthusiastically thought the same thing about. But such an honest negative assessment is not going to make it as a blurb, nor does an author's effusive praise guarantee that the book has been read. Random people I interviewed for this piece didn't know what blurbs were—when I asked about their persuasiveness/necessity, most said they thought they were necessary, but then I realized they were referring to the "flap copy" on the inside cover. Most readers I spoke to casually, including my niece, a college student who can't leave a bookstore without at least 50 pounds of books, seemed pretty agnostic-to-meh about blurbs and mostly ignored them while browsing.